Featured Lenses

Featured Lenses For Digital SLR Cameras

The progress of digital SLR cameras is credited mainly to three main elements: lens, image sensor and digital image processor. At digihut.org, we have more than 1,400 digital SLR cameras for you to choose from. Selection of digital SLR camera is an important investment in your passion, which eventually could turn into a a very serious business. The selection of digital SLR camera is subject of many criteria, technical and personal. We do not touch the personal criteria; they are out of any discussion. In this article we use our professional expertise to bring into discussion several characteristics of featured lenses such as Image Stabilization – IS and Tilt Shift – TS. We intend to help users to make better pictures by the explaining the operation of these advanced lenses. We strongly recommend you to consider this article as an incentive for reading more on the topics below and also for discussions and practising on this subject. First, we review some parameters frequently advertised for digital SLR cameras and also related to featured lenses.
 
Number of pixels such as 18MP and 22.3MP are frequently used for advertising digital SLR cameras. This is an important parameter contributing to the picture quality, but components such as signal processor, light metering system, image focusing are very important, too. We explain below the connection between the number of pixels of digital SLR camera, their lenses and picture quality. Each digital SLR camera manufacturer has lenses compatible with its cameras. Lens compatibility covers not only the mount, but also optical parameters and electrical compatibility with the camera body, including the operation of entire lens. It is a very strong operational link between digital SLR camera and the lens attached to it. If you do not use the lens for recommended camera models, some features of the lens might not work, even if the lens and digital SLR camera come from the same manufacturer.
 
Camera format such as APS-C and Full Frame refers to the sensor type. Cropped Images schematic shows three very popular Canon image sensors and their dimensions.
Full Frame sensor size has the advantage of larger field of view of lenses designed for this format. The drawbacks are large size of camera body and also of lenses designed for Full Frame format. APS-C sensors have some advantages for telephoto, such as smaller size and lighter cameras than Full Frame digital SLR cameras. Also the lenses designed for APS-C sensors are smaller and lighter than the lenses designed for Full Frame sensor. It is easy to understand that when goes into optimization, both camera and its lenses are built around the image sensor. Further you will see some aspects.
 

Some comments on sensor format, number of pixels, pixel area and pixel size for Canon and Nikon brands clarify several aspects, directly applicable to other brands, too.
 

Canon APS-C sensor format has 22.2mmX14.8mm, or 329sq-mm [square-millimeters] area. For 18MP count such as in Canon EOS Rebel T3i 18MP CMOS Digital SLR Camera, pixel area is 18.3sq-microns [square-microns], or about 4.3micronsX4.3microns size [1micron = 0.001mm]. Canon EOS 5D Mark III 22.3MP Full Frame Camera has Full Frame sensor of 36mmX24mm size, or 864sq-mm, which is 2.63 times larger than APS-C sensor area. With its 22.3MP total count, single pixel area is 38.74sq-microns or about 6.2micronsX6.2microns size, which is 2.11 times larger than the pixel area of APS-C sensor. From comparison of these digital SLR camera types, we notice several aspects:

(i) For Canon digital SLR cameras, one pixel of Full Frame sensor is about two times larger than one pixel of APS-C sensor and obviously captures about two times more light. Therefore, Full Frame sensor is twice more sensitive to light than APS-C sensor, which is good for low-light exposure.

(ii) In all digital cameras, each pixel takes a sample of the image across its area. Entire picture is no more than a collection of samples taken by each pixel. Higher pixel count per unit area, or pixel density, gives more detailed or sharper image than lower pixel density. In our cases, 22.3MP Full Frame sensor has 0.026MP/sq-mm, and 18MP APS-C sensor has 0.055MP/sq-mm. If the appropriate lens is used for each sensor, the math is quite simple. Full Frame sensor area is 2.63 times larger and pixel size is 2.11 times larger than APS-C sensor. There is no significant difference in image sharpness between APS-C cameras and Full Frame cameras. Full Frame cameras have larger Field Of View or FOV, as you see in DX and FX Cameras with Lenses diagram.
Large FOV is the reason for using Canon EOS 5D Mark II 21.1MP Full Frame CMOS Digital SLR Camera for replacing the usual 35mm film format for shooting movies.
We notice that Nikon DX cameras give slightly less sharp pictures, have lower light sensitivity and smaller size and weight than Nikon FX cameras. You can overcome light sensitivity issue by using a tripod, which however must be used for sharp picture when shooting in low light at ISO100 speed. Large FOV is the main advantage of Full Frame digital SLR, not considering other operational features such as 39-points autofocus system versus 11-points autofocus encountered in DX format cameras.

(iii) Several lenses such as Canon EF-S 55-250mm f/4.0-5.6 IS II Telephoto Zoom Lens for Canon Digital SLR Cameras, are optimized for image projection on entire surface of APS-C sensor with crop factor close to one. If you use Canon EF 75-300mm f/4-5.6 III Telephoto Zoom Lens for Canon SLR Cameras optimized for Full Frame sensor on camera with APS-C sensor, the image will be cropped with 1.6 factor in its central part, as you see in the Cropped Images schematic. However, across its area, APS-C cropped picture will reveal more details than the picture taken with the same Full Frame lens mounted on Full Frame camera. In the schematic below, you can compare the blurred picture with sharp picture. Be aware that blur was exaggerated on purpose, for highlighting the difference in sharpness. Spatial resolution is the professional term used for image sharpness: high spatial resolution reveals more details than low spatial resolution.
 

Nikon DX sensor has 23.6mmX15.8mm size, or 372.88sq-mm area. For its 24.2MP count such as in Nikon D3200 24.2MP CMOS Digital SLR, pixel area is 15.4sq-microns, and pixels density is 0.065MP/sq-mm. With Nikon 55-200mm f/4-5.6G ED IF AF-S DX VR Nikkor Zoom Lens optimized for DX sensor, crop factor does not limit the picture size. The FX sensor of Nikon D800E 36.3MP CMOS FX-Format Digital SLR Camera has 36mmX23.9mm size with total area of 860.4sq-mm and pixels density of 0.042MP/sq-mm. Using DX sensor as reference, FX sensor pixel area is 1.5 times larger than the area of DX pixel with total area 2.3 larger than of DX total area. Looking at these numbers, for FX sensor we see 1.5 decrease in picture sharpness, but 2.3 time increase in light sensitivity. Not counting additional features of FX cameras, DX cameras give better picture sharpness with less light sensitivity than FX cameras. Using ISO100 and tripod for sharp picture, light sensitivity can be compensated by longer exposure or slower shutter speed. With Nikon 35mm f/1.4G AF-S FX SWM Nikkor Lens for DSLR Cameras optimized for FX sensor, Nikon D800E DSLR will reveal theoretically finer details than Canon EOS 5D Mark III 22.3MP Full Frame camera with Full Frame working with Canon EF 75-300mm f/4-5.6 III Telephoto Zoom Lens. The picture file released by digital camera is subject to very complicate computations made by its digital image processor, which can affect the details of the final picture.

DX and FX Cameras with Lenses schematic shows the fields of view of each FX and DX Nikon cameras working with their optimized lenses. DX configuration has a narrower field of view or FOV than FX configuration. Nikon D3200 24.2MP CMOS Digital SLR with FX optimized lens will crop the central part of the image with 1.5 crop factor, showing slightly finer details than the image of the same object taken with DX optimized lens.
 

Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) is a measure of optical quality of a lens. MTF plots contrast and resolution graphs of the lens staring from center toward its boundary referenced to a “perfect” lens that transmits 100% of the light and reveals the image with infinitely small details. Of course, the perfect lens does not exist; it is just a theoretical reference. Any MTF plot shows on horizontal axis X the distance from lens center toward its boundary, in millimeters. The vertical axis Y shows the transmission from zero (no transmission) to 1 (100% transmission). MTF plots are traced along two conventional lines or directions such as Sagittal and Meridional, for two spatial frequencies defined by two group of lines:

(sf1) Low spatial frequency MTF plot for 10lines/mm (100microns center to center line spacing) pattern shows lens contrast.

(sf2) High spatial frequency MTF plot for 30lines/mm (33.33microns center to center line spacing) pattern shows lens resolution or sharpness.

The schematic Sagittal and Meridional Lines below gives you better perception about both line groups and also about how sagittal and meridional lines are defined.

For Canon APS-C image sensor with 18MP, there are about 23pixels within 100microns line spacing (10lines/mm) and 7.75pixels within 33.33microns line spacing (30lines/mm). These pixels sample the image on image sensor above the Nyquist rate required for minimum recovery of the original image from sampled picture. As general rule, more pixels of the image sensor get sharper image.
 
Below you see two MTF examples for Canon EF-S 55-250mm f/4.0-5.6 IS II Telephoto Zoom Lens for Canon Digital SLR Cameras.


How can we read the above MTF diagrams? The graphs are for a zoom lens working between F=55mm and F=250mm. Accordingly, the diagrams are for both focal distances F=55mm of MTF Canon EF-S 55-250mm f/4-5.6 IS II and F=250mm of MTF Canon EF-S 55-250mm f/4-5.6 IS II. Canon MTF Charts have specific meanings such as:

(a) Thick lines are for 10lines/mm, and thin lines are for 30 lines/mm.
(b) Black lines are for maximum aperture f/5.6 and blue lines are for f/8.
(c) Solid lines on the graphs are for meridional direction of the image.
(d) Dashed lines in the graphs are for sagittal direction of the image.
(e) The difference between sagittal and meridional graphs comes from lens astigmatism.

Conclusions from the MTF graphs:

F=55mm

(c1) The contrast is almost constant across the entire lens aperture for f/5.6 diaphragm, on both meridional and sagittal directions. On sagittal direction, for f/8, contrast drops monotonically toward 70% by the lens boundary.

(c2) The image resolution or sharpness has little change across both meridian directions for both f/5.6 and f/8 diaphragms. On sagittal direction, sharpness has its maximum value in the central region of the lens up to 3mm radius, then decreases monotonically toward 40% by the lens boundary for both f/5.6 and f/8.0 diaphragms.

F=250mm

(c3) The contrast is almost constant for f/8.0 on meridional direction and has a small drop on sagittal direction over more than 10mm radius. It is also almost constant across the entire aperture for f/5.6 on meridional directions.

(c4) The sharpness has a drastic decrease for f/5.6 over 10mm radius, on both sagittal and meridional directions. For f/8 on meridional direction is a 15% decrease from center to boundary, but for f/5.6 there is a steep decrease toward 30% on both meridional and sagittal directions. This lens gives a blurred image toward its boundaries. Do not worry about this; it is very hard to notice that blur when reading the image at 100% magnification. You may notice some blur in picture over 150% magnification.
 
Lens contrast is linked to its resolution: when resolution decreases, contrast decreases, too; it is physics behind.
 

We show below also MTF plots for Nikon 55-200mm f/4-5.6G ED IF AF-S DX VR Nikkor Zoom lens, equivalent to the previous Canon lens.
 


 

Nikon provides MTF graphs with all notes for minimum (Wide) and maximum (Tele) focal distances. These plots show the overall lens behavior for Wide or F=55mm focal length and for Tele or F=200mm focal length.
 
There is no widely accepted standard for lens testing and for producing MTF graphs. Each lens manufacturer has its own procedures. Therefore, it is difficult to compare lenses with apparently similar focal distances and f/number from different manufacturers. However, the lens always works with the image sensor and with digital image controller. Ultimately, all these three elements must be considered together, or in other words, the picture is important.

Conclusions on lens optical quality:

(LQ1) Check to see if lens manufacturer provides MTF graphs, which is a proof that the lens should be made under tight quality control.

(LQ2) Select a lens with flat MTF graphs across maximum possible extent.

(LQ3) Final and the best check: look at the sample pictures made with your selected lens posted in your preferred sites dedicated to pictures, such as Amazon.com.

We recommend several popular lenses. Each link below directs you not only to the lens, but also to a multitude of shots made with that lens.


 

Image stabilization

Every type of lens brings its contribution to the image. This explains the large variety of available lenses compatible with practically all models of digital SLR camera from the same manufacturer such as Canon, Nikon, Sony, Olympus and Panasonic.
 
There are two types of subjects: static and moving, and also two ways of shooting: handheld and using tripod. In all the above discussions, we assumed shooting static subjects with camera locked on rigid tripod. Very often, several amateurs and professional photographers shoot static subjects with tripod and at low speed such as ISO100 or ISO200 for the best picture sharpness. Assuming a perfect focus in handheld shooting, the camera always moves slightly during the exposure; the only question is how much it moves. If the camera moves within the sharpness limits of the lens not detected by the image sensor, you do not see any blur in the picture. If the camera moves beyond the sharpness limits detected by the image sensor, the picture appears blurred more or less. The photographers use various approaches to get sharp pictures when shooting with handheld camera:

(sh1) Increase sensitivity of camera beyond ISO200. According to camera specifications, you can shoot pictures with correct exposure up to ISO6400 or more. Be aware that at high ISO_speed, the picture also gets blurred because of image sensor noise. Higher ISO_speed gives more noise in the picture.

(sh2) Faster shutter speed below 1/125 will get a reasonable sharp picture with handheld shooting: the camera freezes the scene. It is expected a blurred image when shutter speed is slower than f/[focal length]. This empirical rule shows that shooting with telephoto lenses are likely to blur the image for handheld shooting, unless the image move is mitigated up to the point where the camera autofocus can work properly.

(sh3) Use larger diaphragm or iris, to get more light on the image sensor. Be aware that the diaphragm number controls the depth of field – DOF of the lens. As an example, when using f/4 diaphragm you have shorter DOF than when using f/8 diaphragm; therefore when adjusting the diaphragm you are playing also with the depth limits of image sharpness.
 

Image Stabilization (IS) feature mitigates the image shake on image sensor, thus allowing stable image up to four stops slower. This is a tremendous advantage versus the regular lenses without IS, especially when shooting in darker ambient light.

The schematic Canon Conventional IS – OFF shows two arbitrary situations encountered in normal operation when using regular lenses for shooting, or when using a lens with IS feature disabled. This schematic shows a simulated shake for better understanding of the real case when using telephoto lenses. You notice the difference in scene positions between the two instances when the scene moves too much and too fast, which prevents the lens to keep focusing on the scene.
 

The schematic Camera Shake below explains compensation of camera movement during shooting.
 

When shooting either a static or a slow-moving scene, camera shaking in arbitrary way can be decomposed in tilt and shift shakes as shown in Camera Shake schematic above. Any tilt has a horizontal component or yaw and also a vertical component or pitch as figured out by the arrow pairs. Accordingly, there is an angular velocity sensor for each shake component. Angular tilt of the camera lens produces an image shift on the image sensor. Camera processor uses the signals from these two angular velocity sensors for shifting the Image Stabilizer perpendicular on optical axis. Tilt Compensation schematic below shows how conventional IS works. You can see also the look of some Canon IS units.
 

Select IS ON button in the link below to see IS lens moving and also mitigation of image shake.

IS operation is simple: when the lens tilts downwards, the image projected by the lens on the image sensor shifts. The Image Stabilizer Unit within the lens shifts its Image Stabilizer Lens perpendicular to the optical axis according to signals provided by both angular velocity sensors. It is obvious that the Image Stabilizer Lens moves simultaneously in two directions within a plane perpendicular on the optical axis. This reduces significantly the image shift on the image sensor up to the equivalent of four stops slower. This classical image stabilization has different brand names. Canon calls it Image Stabilization IS Mode 1 and Nikon calls it Vibration Reduction VR. It is really great help for many situations. Of course, IS or VR feature can be enabled and disabled anytime by the user. It is obvious that there is a time constant associated to this image stabilization, which limits the image stabilization to relatively slow shaking.

WARNING: Long focal length is likely to produce blur with classical lens even when shooting at 1/125 or less. Image stabilization does not work if the image shakes too fast. When shooting with IS enabled, be careful to stay within maximum four stops slower than when IS is disabled.

The schematics below show two situations of aiming the scene with IS disabled and enabled. It is easy to notice how small is the image shift on image sensor surface with IS enabled.
 
Click ON button in the image provided by the link below to see image stabilization.

In the above example, notice that Canon IS I works better on the swimmer than on the water waves and drops, which move faster than the swimmer. This example is in good agreement with the above warning for image stabilization effective on slow-moving scenes.
 

When panning camera on a moving subject such as shown in Canon Image Stabilization IS-Mode 2 Panning schematic, IS operation may interfere with subject background. Both the subject and the background are moving.
In horizontal panning, the photographer follows the subject horizontally. The subject moves slower than the background, with sudden changes in its positions towards the frame. In this case, IS must compensate only for vertical changes. The background appears blurred.

In vertical panning, IS must compensate only for horizontal changes. Canon names IS Mode 2, image stabilization on panning.

The schematic below shows Canon EF 70-300mm f/4-5.6 IS USM Lens for Canon EOS SLR Cameras with the operating instructions for selecting IS 1 and IS 2 modes of operation.
 

We recommend below several Canon lenses with IS feature. For the entire range of Canon IS lenses, visit the link Canon Image Stabilization Lenses.

(ISL1) Canon EF-S 55-250mm f/4.0-5.6 IS II Telephoto Zoom Lens for Canon Digital SLR Cameras

(ISL2) Canon EF 75-300mm f/4-5.6 III Telephoto Zoom Lens for Canon SLR Cameras

(ISL3) Canon EF 70-300mm f/4-5.6 IS USM Lens for Canon EOS SLR Cameras

(ISL4) Canon EF 75-300mm f/4-5.6 III USM Telephoto Zoom Lens for Canon SLR Cameras

(ISL5) Canon EF 70-300mm f/4-5.6 IS USM Lens for Canon EOS SLR Cameras

(ISL6) Canon EF 28-135mm f/3.5-5.6 IS USM Standard Zoom Lens for Canon SLR Cameras

(ISL7) Canon EF 24-105mm f/4 L IS USM Lens for Canon EOS SLR Cameras.
 

Several Canon lenses have IS Mode 3 feature which stabilizes the image only when the shutter is fully pressed. IS Mode 3 is recommended for fast acting scenes, such as sport subjects. IS Mode 3 is an extension of IS Mode 2, which stabilizes the image on direction perpendicular to panning. We recommend to visit Canon EF 300mm f/2.8L IS USM II Super Telephoto Lens for some additional information.

We recommend several Canon lenses with IS Mode 3, such as:

(ISL8) Canon EF 300mm f/2.8L IS USM II Super Telephoto Lens for Canon EOS SLR Cameras

(ISL9) Canon EF 400mm f/2.8L IS USM II Super Telephoto Lens for Canon EOS SLR Cameras

(ISL10) Canon EF 500mm f/4L IS II USM Lens

(ISL11) Canon EF 600mm f/4L IS II USM Lens.
 
Hybrid Image Stabilization works on both tilt shake and shift shake. This feature is encountered at Canon EF 100mm f/2.8L IS USM Macro Lens for Canon Digital SLR Cameras. The schematic below shows the lens and its stabilization features.

Dynamic IS feature added on top of IS feature keeps image sharpness when the subject moves either toward camera or in opposite direction, shown as Axial Shake in Camera Shake schematic. Canon EF-S 18-135mm f/3.5-5.6 IS STM has Dynamic IS feature, very useful for video shooting. Below you have an image of this lens.

 
Nikon Vibration Reduction – VR technology uses the same principle as Canon Image Stabilization – IS technology, explained in Tilt Compensation Schematic. As you see in this schematic, Vibration Reduction Units and Image Stabilization Units look similar, but of course there are different, built according to each manufacturer’s design for digital cameras and their lenses. VR II option operates faster than VR option.

For panning, VR detects camera movement and automatically suppresses the blur-correction function. If the camera shakes horizontally, VR reduces blur in the vertical direction. With this function, the panning effect is maximized. Panning Detection is effective regardless of the camera’s orientation or direction of motion, either horizontal or vertical.
A schematic of Nikon 18-200mm f/3.5-5.6G AF-S ED VR II Nikkor Telephoto Zoom Lens for Nikon DX-Format Digital SLR Cameras and a schematic of Vibration Reduction features of VR and VR II models are shown below.
 

We recommend below several popular models of Nikon lenses with VR features, from the top list of our Nikon lenses collection. For our entire VR collection, visit Nikon VR lenses for Nikon digital cameras.

(VR1) Nikon 55-200mm f/4-5.6G ED IF AF-S DX VR [Vibration Reduction] Nikkor Zoom Lens

(VR2) Nikon 70-300mm f/4.5-5.6G ED IF AF-S VR Nikkor Zoom Lens for Nikon Digital SLR Cameras

(VR3) Nikon 55-300mm f/4.5-5.6G ED VR AF-S DX Nikkor Zoom Lens for Nikon Digital SLR

(VR4) Nikon 18-200mm f/3.5-5.6G AF-S ED VR II Nikkor Telephoto Zoom Lens for Nikon DX-Format Digital SLR Cameras

(VR5) Nikon 105mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR Micro-Nikkor Lens

(VR6) Nikon 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR AF-S Nikkor Zoom Lens for Nikon Digital SLR

You see sample images with Nikon VR disabled (OFF) and enabled (ON).

 

Tilt Shift – TS Lenses

In the schematic Perspective Correction with TS Lens the same building was shot from the same position with a regular wide angle lens (left hand side) and with TS lens (right hand side). The picture on the left has the inherent geometric distortions of the wide angle lens when shooting relatively close to subject. Skilled photographers use sometimes these distortions for producing special effects.

When you want the building to appear straight all the way up, the use of Tilt Shift – TS lens is required. The operation of TS lens is based on Scheimpflug principle shown in the schematic Tilt For Focus on Oblique Subjects below.

Scheimpflug discovered more than 100 years ago that you can get sharp images with very large Depth Of Field for subjects making an acute angle with the image senor (in our case), if you tilt the lens in such a way that the subject plane, the lens plane and the image sensor plane all meet along the same Hinge Line, followed by a lens shift to make the image on the sensor. The schematic Tilt For Focus on Oblique Subjects shows the Hinge Point, which is the intersection between the Hinge Line and the plane of schematic.
Practically, with TS lenses you make perspective corrections in two steps:
First, tilt the lens for focusing on subject.
Next, shift the lens until you get the best perspective correction, as in the diagram below.
If necessary, make another iteration until you get the best image, then shoot.

Electro-Magnetic Diaphragm – EMD module of canon works in tandem with electronic lens system for providing accurate control of light flux on the image sensor and almost circular aperture shape. The schematic Canon EMD below shows simulated extreme positions of diaphragm.

Below you see a picture of Canon TS-E 17mm f/4L UD Aspherical Ultra Wide Tilt-Shift Lens for Canon Digital SLR Cameras.

You can have access to our entire Canon TS lenses collection by visiting the link Canon Tilt Shift Lenses. We recommend below from the most popular models:

(CTSL 1) Canon TS-E 24mm f/3.5L II Ultra Wide Tilt-Shift Lens for Canon Digital SLR Cameras

(CTSL 2) Canon TS-E 17mm f/4L UD Aspherical Ultra Wide Tilt-Shift Lens for Canon Digital SLR Cameras

(CTSL 3) Canon TS-E 45mm f/2.8 Tilt Shift Lens for Canon SLR Cameras.

Follow the link Nikon Tilt Shift Lenses for our entire Nikon TS Lenses collection. We recommend several models below:

(NTSL 1) Nikon 45mm f/2.8 Perspective Control-E Nikkor Aspherical Manual Focus Lens – Grey Market

(NTSL 2) Nikon PC-E Micro NIKKOR 85mm f/2.8D Manual Focus Lens – Grey Market

(NTSL 3) Nikon PC-E Micro NIKKOR 85mm f/2.8D manual Focus Lens with 5 Year U.S.A. Warranty, Tiffen 77mm Photo Essentials Filter Kit, Lens Cap Leash, Professional Lens Cleaning Kit.

We suggest also Arsat Tilt Shift Lenses brand of TS lenses for Nikon, Canon, Sony and Minolta cameras.

Fisheye and Fisheye Zoom Lenses

These lenses create special effects even during shooting. Of course, the enthusiast is limited only by imagination for post processing using photo editing software available in our site in Image Lab department.
You see below Canon EF 8-15mm f/4L Fisheye USM Ultra-Wide Zoom Lens for Canon EOS SLR Cameras and two pictures taken with this zoom lens.

We recommend also the popular Canon EF 15mm f/2.8 Fisheye Lens for Canon SLR Cameras with fixed focal length. The schematic below has the picture of the lens and also two sample images made with it.

We recommend Rokinon FE8M-N 8mm F3.5 Fisheye Lens for Nikon, a very popular lens. See below the lens picture and two sample images taken with this lens.

Conclusions

We highlighted some advanced aspects of lenses for digital SLR such as MTF, image stabilization, TS and fisheye. For better understanding of lens features, we explained them in connection to several parameters of image sensors. Our idea is to help the photographers to take a better decision when buying lenses with advanced features and also for using these lenses at their full potential by knowing the basics behind their operation. Obviously, our purpose was not to exhaust the subject, just to reveal several important aspects. We hope that this article will help the photographers and also will stimulate their interest to go in further details.

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